12 de agosto de 2021 10:28 AM
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Lanzan campaña para poner impuestos a carne y leche por efecto en cambio climático

Tras los anuncios de la Unión Europea de imponer aranceles al carbono emitido por productos externos a mediados de esta década se agregó esta semana un pedido específico de un conjunto de organizaciones a los presidentes y ministros de 50 países para que pongan u impuestos específico a carnes y lácteos por sus emisiones.

La carta, que se puede encontrar en https://futurefoodprice.org/ se dirige a los países de la OCDE que tienen un consumo de carne mayor al promedio mundial y propone que esos impuestos se redireccionen al apoyo a productores que adopten prácticas que mitiguen la emisión de gases de efecto invernadero.

A continuación el contenido de la carta enviada:

Somos Carbon Pricing for Food Coalition, un grupo de empresas, organizaciones sin fines de lucro y naciones de la ONU, que trabajan en distintas geografías.

Le escribimos sobre su ambicioso apoyo al Acuerdo Climático de París y cómo puede mejorar sus contribuciones determinadas a nivel nacional, aplicando el precio del carbono en los alimentos.

Sugerimos comenzar con la carne y los lácteos y reducir los impuestos sobre los alimentos saludables. Los niveles más bajos de consumo de proteína animal no solo mejorarán la salud pública nacional y, por lo tanto, reducirán los costos de salud, sino que simultáneamente reducirán las emisiones globales de gases de efecto invernadero y la pérdida de biodiversidad. Si el consumo mundial de carne y lácteos se expandiera a niveles per cápita más altos (como de costumbre), será imposible evitar que las temperaturas globales aumenten a niveles peligrosos.

La producción de carne y lácteos representa al menos el 14,5% de todas las emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero (GEI) y se prevé que represente hasta el 81% del presupuesto de emisiones de 1,5 ° C para 2050 si el consumo continúa sin ser reducido.

Hacemos un llamado a los 50 Estados Miembros (35 de la OCDE y otros 15 países, Uruguay no está incluido) que participan en la Cumbre de Sistemas Alimentarios de las Naciones Unidas, la Conferencia de Biodiversidad del CDB y la Conferencia de Cambio Climático (COP26) en 2021, a

1) anunciar públicamente el precio del carbono de la carne y los lácteos o iniciar estudios de viabilidad (para implementarlos). De esta manera, se puede lograr un sistema alimentario saludable y sostenible, que proporcione alimentos nutritivos para todos dentro de los objetivos climáticos de París, los límites planetarios y las pautas dietéticas.

2) utilizar los ingresos de los precios más altos de la carne / lácteos (impuestos) para compensar a los grupos de bajos ingresos: p. reduciendo los impuestos para los alimentos bajos en carbono (verduras, frutas, comidas veganas) y compensando a los agricultores: subvenciones para reducir las emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero, otras emisiones o el ganado.

En su país, los niveles de consumo de carne están por encima de las pautas de salud dietética internacionales y superan las pautas para el consumo de alimentos que tienen en cuenta los límites planetarios: la Comisión EAT de la revista médica Lancet recomendó un consumo máximo de 300 gramos por semana, sumando hasta 16 kg de carne. / cápita / año [1]. El consumo de carne per cápita en su país es de… kg por año. Los países con un nivel de consumo de carne por encima de las pautas de salud deben tomar la iniciativa en la reducción del consumo de carne.

Reducir el consumo de carne y lácteos per cápita en los 50 países desarrollados que tienen los niveles más altos de consumo de carne per cápita se ha convertido en un imperativo para la salud humana y planetaria. Ya hemos informado a sus Ministros de Clima, Agricultura y Finanzas.

Acepte nuestra propuesta para considerar o anunciar el precio del carbono de la carne / lácteos y reducir los precios de los alimentos saludables.

Proponemos hacer su anuncio antes de la Cumbre de la ONU sobre Alimentación, Biodiversidad o Clima.

Muchas gracias por su respuesta, Sr. / Sra. Presidente,

Saludos cordiales, en nombre de los signatarios

El docuento original en inglés

Mr / Mrs President  ,

We are the Carbon Pricing for Food Coalition, a group of (number) companies, non-profit organisations and UN nations, working across geographies (number of countries). We are writing to you about your ambitious support to the Paris Climate Agreement and how you can improve your national determined contributions, by applying carbon pricing on food. We suggest to start with meat and dairy and reduce taxes on healthy food. Lower levels of animal protein consumption will not only improve national public health, thus reduce health costs, but will simultaneously reduce global greenhouse gas emissions and loss of biodiversity. If global meat and dairy consumption were to expand to higher levels per capita (business as usual) it will become impossible to keep global temperatures from rising to dangerous levels. Meat and dairy production accounts for at least 14.5% of all greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and is projected to account for up to 81% of the 1.5°C emissions budget by 2050 if consumption continues unabated.

We call on 50 Member States (35 OECD and 15 other countries) engaged in the UN Food Systems Summit, CBD Biodiversity Conference and Climate Change Conference (COP26) in 2021, to

1)     publicly announce carbon pricing of meat and dairy or starting feasibility studies. In this way, a healthy and sustainable food system can be realised, delivering nutritious food for all within Paris Climate targets, planetary boundaries and dietary guidelines. 

2)     use revenues of higher meat/dairy prices (taxes) to compensate low income groups: e.g. by reducing taxes for low carbon food (vegetables, fruits, vegan meals) and by compensating farmers: subsidies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions, other emissions or livestock.

In your country, meat consumption levels are above (inter)national dietary health guidelines and exceeding the guidelines for food consumption that takes into account planetary boundaries: the EAT Lancet Commission advised a maximum consumption of 300 gram per week, summing up to 16 kg meat/capita/year[1]. Meat consumption per capita in your country is … kg per year. Countries with a meat consumption level above health guidelines should take the lead in reducing meat consumption. Reducing consumption of meat and dairy per capita in the 50 developed countries that have the highest meat consumption levels per capita, has become imperative for human and planetary health. We have already informed your Ministers of Climate, Agriculture and Finance. Please accept our proposal to consider or announce carbon pricing of meat/dairy, and reduce prices for healthy food. We propose to make your announcement before the UN Summit for Food, Biodiversity or Climate.

Thank you very much for your reply to us, Mr/Mrs. President,

With kind regards, on behalf of signatories (see attachment 2 with names and logo’s organisations),

Prof. Pier Vellinga                                             ir. Jeroom Remmers

Chair True Animal Protein Price Coalition    Director True Animal Protein Price Coalition

Attachment 1: Benefits of carbon pricing food

Attachment 2: List of signatories: see https://futurefoodprice.org/signatories

Attachment 3: List of 50 countries with highest meat consumption per capita

Attachment 1: Benefits of carbon pricing food

Health and environmental benefits

Overconsumption of meat is leading to increased risks for non-communicable diseases like stroke, type 2 diabetes, cancer and higher risks for obesity. To reduce such risks and reduce healthcare costs related to unhealthy diets, WHO and World Bank advised all nations to tax unhealthy food products like sugar and processed meat[2]. So taxing meat or dairy will also help to reduce overconsumption. Meat and dairy consumption cause nearly 60% of global biodiversity loss; it is the leading cause of tropical deforestation (reports WWF UK[3], Chatham House[4]). Policies to reduce meat and dairy consumption (like fiscal policies) are also needed for nature protection and climate goals. FAO advises financial incentives and other policies to reduce GHG-emissions in the livestock sector[5]. The business as usual in the way we consume food produced of animals is incompatible with the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), the Paris Agreement and other critical international targets.  Countries with a meat consumption higher than (inter)national health guidelines should take the lead in reducing meat consumption. This is not only the call to action in recent IPCC reports[6] and the Eat/Lancet Commission report, but also UNEPs and the EU Commission’s call for shift to plant-based diets.

Solution

Like fossil fuels, tobacco, sugar and alcohol, future taxes on meat are recommended for your country. Similar to the mentioned products that harm our health or ecosystems, we encourage your country to apply a (carbon) price on meat and dairy, preferably at the consumer level (e.g. 2-4 euro per kg of meat, related to costs of emissions or VAT tax increase). In this way, future health costs or environmental costs ca be reduced. Recommended, ideally combined, additional policies are: reducing taxes on vegetables, fruits and vegan meals(or introduce subsidies on healthy food/lunches), paying farmers for reducing GHG-emissions, compensating low income groups and supporting low income countries to adapt to climate change and protect forests. Costs for these additional policies would be covered by the revenues collected with the carbon food tax. A consumer tax for a true meat price means that consumers will pay for external costs of meat consumption, like costs for greenhouse gas emissions, pollution or public health. This tax can be collected at the supermarket, catering industry and butcher’s shop or at the slaughterhouse and from a meat importer.  Implementation is legally and technically possible, according to German and Dutch government studies. Furthermore, including the meat/dairy sector into carbon emission trading schemes can also be considered.

Advantages for your country

  • Health care costs will go down when consumers eat more healthy food and eat less meat conforming to the dietary guidelines. In Europe alone, health care budgets will go down by 9 billion euro per year if taxes on red and processed meat will be introduced [7]. In an Oxford University report you can learn how much your country can save in health care costs and how many lives and patients can be saved [8].
  • A majority population (55-70%) of West-European countries support consumer taxes on meat, if in return tax revenues are used to make healthy food cheaper and compensate farmers [9]. How is this in your country?
  • Taxes on meat are effective and cheap policy options to solve climate and health challenges [8, 10].

The solution works

Different countries already decided to introduce or increase taxes on meat (and dairy) or are very close to do so.

Spain, Germany and New Zealand already decided to introduce or increase taxes on meat (and dairy).

  • New Zealand will include animal farms into the ETS system for CO2-emission reduction by 2025.
  • Spain increased VAT tariffs on meat in 2012 to 10%, reduced tariffs on vegetables & fruits to 4%.
  • Germany will probably tax meat and dairy (VAT tax increase or a consumer tax per kg) after 2021; the two largest political groups (Union & Greens) included the Borchert Commission animal welfare tax proposal in their election programs).
  • The Dutch Government considers a consumer tax on meat for environmental costs per kg (2-4,7 euro/kg meat).
  • EU Commission will include environmental costs into food prices and taxes (Farm2Fork Strategy); the EU Commission promised to present a study to implement the polluter pays principle in agriculture for GHG-emissions.
  • A tax on meat in 28 EU countries is estimated to reduce GHG-emissions in Europe by 3% (120 Mton CO2 eq/year): ‘Sustainability charge on meat’ report, presented at the EU Parliament 5th Feb 2020 [10]. Carbon taxes on food are effective [11].

Literature:

[1] P. 10 https://eatforum.org/content/uploads/2019/01/EAT-Lancet_Commission_Summary_Report.pdf

[2] https://tappcoalition.eu/nieuws/13251/world-bank-asks-governments-to-introduce-taxes-on-unhealthy-food-like-processed-meat

[3] https://tinyurl.com/4w8v4d2r and: https://www.worldwildlife.org/magazine/issues/summer-2018/articles/what-are-the-biggest-drivers-of-tropical-deforestation

[4] https://www.chathamhouse.org/2021/02/food-system-impacts-biodiversity-loss

[5] http://www.fao.org/news/story/en/item/197623/icode/

[6] https://www.ipcc.ch/2019/08/08/land-is-a-critical-resource_srccl/

[7] Page 18: https://drive.google.com/file/d/1TuFb2z75vacNpLR97Nx-Gb15PnxEvQKH/view

[8] https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0204139

[9] https://www.dvj-insights.com/support-for-meat-tax-study-dvj-insights-tapp-coalition/

[10] reports: https://tappcoalition.eu/nieuws/13130/eu-parliament-to-discuss-dutch-proposal-for-a-fair-meat-price-5th-of-feb and https://cedelft.eu/publications/a-sustainability-charge-on-meat/ and https://drive.google.com/file/d/1TuFb2z75vacNpLR97Nx-Gb15PnxEvQKH/view

[11} Oxford University report on carbon pricing of food, 2016: https://www.foodnavigator.com/Article/2016/11/08/Tax-beef-40-and-milk-20-to-cut-carbon-and-save-lives-say-scientists

Attachment 2: List of Signatories

Companies

NGO’s

UN Member States

Does your organisation (company, NGO, CSO, UN member state, university, city) want to sign too?

Please sent your logo and a confirmation from an authorized person to: info@tappcoalitie.nl

The Carbon Pricing of Food Coalition is hosted / founded by the

True Animal Protein Price Coalition

Minahassastraat 1

1094 RS Amsterdam

The Netherlands

info@tappcoalitie.nl / https://tappcoalition.eu

Not all TAPP Coalition partners signed the Open Letter; those who did can be found here: https://futurefoodprice.org/signatories

All partners of TAPP Coalition can be seen below:

Attachment 3: list of 50 (developed) countries with highest meat consumption per capita

*Hong Kong is not a country but a special administrative region within the People’s Republic of China

Fuente:

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